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X-Ray Examples

 

RETROLISTHESIS

All views in neutral upright (weight bearing) position

See Retrolisthesis of L5 x-ray for how measurements are made.

 

1    Cervical Retrolisthesis of C2, C3, C4 and Anterolisthesis of C5

 

 

 

                            Retrolisthesis (a move backward on the vertebra below)

                            C2 on C3, C3 on C4, C4 on C5

                            Also and Anterolisthesis (a forward movement) of C5 on C6

 

 

 

2    Lateral Cervical spine

 

                           

                            This neck looks near to normal at first glance.

                            See the close up  3 below

 

 

 

3    C2 Retrolisthesis (2.5 mm spot view of 2 above)

 

 

                            Another 0.5mm displacement on top of what is present

                            in this neutral upright view would be interpreted as a

                            25% to 28% whole person impairment 1. It may

                            be present if flexion-extension views were taken to confirm my

                            suspicions.

 

 

4    Thoracic Retrolisthesis

 

                                T9 has a posterior translation of 1 mm not classed as a retrolisthesis.

                                T10 is a 3mm retrolisthesis and T11 a 5 mm translation retrolisthesis

                                T 10 and T11 both slipping greater than 2.5mm would each because of their

                                presence give a 20% to 23% whole person impairment rating..

 

 

 

5    Retrolisthesis of L5

 

                            L5 has an 8 mm displacement posterior to Sacrum. This represents

                            joint instability in excess of 4.5mm required for a 20% to 23%

                            whole person impairment 1.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                    go to top of page

Reference:

1     Cocchiarella L., Andersson, G. “American Medical Association Guides to the

       Evaluation of Permanent Impairment”, 5th edition, Tables 15- 3, 15-4, 15-5.


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SUBLUXATIONS

   CERVICAL

      Normal

      Phase 1

      Phase 2

      Phase 3

      Phase 4

   Thoracic

      Normal

      Phase 1

      Phase 2

      Phase 3

      Phase 4

   Lumbar

      Normal

      Phase 1

      Phase 2

      Phase 3

      Phase 4

RETROLISTHESIS

      CERVICAL

     Thoracic

      Lumbar

SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

      Lumbar