Click on the thumbnails to enlarge
All views in neutral upright (weight bearing) position
See Retrolisthesis of L5 x-ray for how measurements are made.
1 Cervical Retrolisthesis of C2, C3, C4 and Anterolisthesis of C5
Multiple levels of the spine may have listheses and in different directions
Retrolisthesis (a move backward on the vertebra below)
C2 on C3, C3 on C4, C4 on C5
Also and Anterolisthesis (a forward movement) of C5 on C6
2 Cervical Retrolisthesis C2 & C4, Anterolisthesis C7
3.5 mm Retrolisthesis is seen at C2 and C4, C7 shows an anterior slippage
(anterolisthesis) of 3mm. This is 0.5 mm short of being classed as a
significantly loose joint. Flexion-extension views may add the remaining
0.5 mm movement that this neutral lateral view does not show.
Both C2 and C4 singly amount to a 25 to 28% whole person impairment. 1
These are combined using charts not added to get a whole person
A Spondylolisthesis is a forward movement of one vertebra on another.
Where it differs from an anterolisthesis is that there is a physical fracture or
separation of the posterior guiding portion of the vertebra (A). This allows
greater displacements than if the vertebra were in tact.
1 Cocchiarella L., Andersson G., “American Medical Association Guides to the
Evaluation of Permanent Impairment”, 5th edition, Tables 15- 3, 15-4, 15-5.